In an era of dwindling budgets, universities have identified language programs as an area for possible cuts. Languages with few students are being framed as luxuries that cannot be afforded during a time of scarcity. The target is easy: Language instruction is delivered by nontenured faculty members to a much greater extent than most other subjects are. Some universities have even announced that entire language departments might be eliminated as a way to, euphemistically, realign resource allocation with emerging priorities. There is a fundamental misunderstanding of the role that language learning should play in undergraduate and graduate curricula, which could seriously imperil the ability of the university to educate the students of the 21st century.
手法：fact 作者指出一个事实(fact): 大学认为语言学习浪费资源而为了 “euphemistically”整合教育资源对其削减甚至是 “eliminate”, 可以看出大学对于语言学习的不重视，让读者感受到大学这种做法的irrationality and absurdity,因为会 “seriously imperil the ability of the university to educate the students of the 21st century.”从而为作者下文更好的展开并支撑自己的观点打下基础 (lay a solid foundation)。
The conventional wisdom among university administrators is that languages are helpful only as tools to achieve an end, such as being able to live, work, or do research in countries where operating in English is not an option. My casual conversations with parents of students and with officials of external sources of support, including government agencies and foundations, reveal a similarly limited view. This stance is as shortsighted as it is widespread among the people who make key decisions about resource allocation across disciplines and programs, and among those who pay for our students' education.
For starters, research indicates that effective language instruction must be culturally grounded. Acquiring a language involves learning the culture or cultures intimately associated with it. Although business students, for example, can operate in English in a large number of countries, a deeper understanding of the cultures there would enhance their performance as employees or entrepreneurs. Interactions and negotiations in English may be possible, but there is nothing like knowing the local language to become aware of the nuances and the sensitivities involved in everyday life or work situations.
We also know from research and experience that acquiring another language makes students better problem solvers, unleashing their ability to identify problems, enriching the ways in which they search and process information, and making them aware of issues and perspectives that they would otherwise ignore. I have often observed that students with exposure to two or more languages and cultures are more creative in their thinking, especially when it comes to tackling complex problems that do not have clear solutions.
Learners of languages, by exposing themselves to other cultures and institutional arrangements, are more likely to see differences of opinion and conflicts by approaching a problem from perspectives that incorporate the values and norms of others as well as their own. Knowledge of other languages also fosters tolerance and mutual understanding. Language learning is thus much more than becoming operational in an environment different than one's own. It is a powerful way of appreciating and respecting the diversity of the world.
手法：concession and refutation, cause and effect, example, quotation, diction
①让步与反驳：作者通过concession and refutation的手法先陈述大部分人甚至是重要决策者对于语言学习的理解很简单粗暴：语言便是一种为了工作生活的工具，随后作者通过一些diction：conventional, limited, shortsighted来批判这种看法是错误浅显的，从而cause readers to question their perceptions of language learning.
②因果：作者通过第三段第四段论述学外语可以identify problems，solve problems, and benefit thinking 目的是暗示读者学外语不但是找工作或者出国的工具而是学外语会改变我们的大脑的。
还可以通过第五段看到学语言的另一个好处：让我们考虑事情更加thoughtful，有发现新大陆的感觉。但除此之外“incorporate the values and norms of others”, “fosters tolerance”, “appreciating and respecting the diversity of the world”这些措辞甚至会让读者体会到外语学习是神圣的，因为学外语可以和一些高端的东西联系到一起：价值观、宽容、欣赏并尊重世界的多样性。因为作者利用这三段在回击“把外语当成一门工具”这一想法，所以读完这三段读者会真切的意识到把外语当一门工具这种想法确实有点 “conventional”,“limited”和“shortsighted”